What is the Vulgate
Early Catholic bible, containing all 73 canonical books, accepted by the modern church.
When it was commissioned
The Vulgate was ordered about A.D.382, when St. Jerome was ordered to compile it by the pope.
Jerome was bothered that the Hebrew and Aramaic texts accepted by the Jews at his time, did not include all the books in the Greek text of the bible. The response of the Pope, was that these should be accepted, and included in the translation. Jerome respected the Pope’s authority, over that of the Jewish council in A.D. 90, which condemned both these books and the basis of the Christian new Testament.
Basis of all modern bibles
For years, Catholic bibles were translated from the Vulgate, because Trent declared it the ideal bible. This tradition changed after Vatican II, when the church decided to allow the translation of the original texts, resulting in the Jerusalem Bible.
Protestants and the Vulgate
The King James Version, is a translation by protestants of the Latin Vulgate. The original King James (Authorized) Version, included all 73 books, of the Official Canon, and the Vulgate. After the second version, the Anglican Protestants excluded the 7 books accepted by Christians, and not the Jews, resulting in the modern Protestant mold for the bible. Luckily, the Anglicans included the four New Testament books of Hebrews, Jude, James, and Revelation (The Book of The Apocalypse). Luther had consigned these to a separate section, as he had to the 7 deuterocanonical books, in his bible, effectively calling 11 books (the above 4 new testament books, and 7 old testament books) uninspired.
Fortunately, modern Protestants accept all 27 books of the new testament. It is hoped, that they will eventually accept the full canon, as well as tradition. Some protestant churches, have either accepted the 7 other books for teaching, without calling them inspired, or even accept parts of Tradition.
Another bible, this one, a catholic bible, that translated the vulgate is the now world famous Douay Rheims Bible, which was translated before the King James Version, along with answers to some theological questions.
Resources on the Latin Vulgate